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Lactobacillus acidophilus
Highly resistant to gastric acid, bile, pepsin, and pancreatin. Possesses more than 20 known peptidases and breaks down casein and gluten. Ferments lactose and metabolizes a variety of other sugars and polysaccharides. Antagonizes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Reduces intestinal concentrations of carcinogenic enzymes.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Produces more peptidases than any other Lactobacillus species. Favorably enhances innate and acquired immunity. Inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production. Outstanding colon epithelial cell adherence. Suppresses pathogenic Escherichia coli internalization. Antagonizes rotavirus and Clostridium difficile. Supports gut microflora during antibiotic therapy. May support immune function in infants with allergies.

Lactobacillus casei
A hardy, adaptive transient species. Makes many proline-specific peptidases enhancing casein, casein-derived polypeptide, and gluten break down. Beneficially modulates innate immune responses. Increases the number of intestinal IgA-producing cells. Antagonizes Helicobacter pylori. Decreases proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Inhibits E. coli adherence to and invasion of intestinal cells. Decreases Shigella-mediated inflammation.

Lactobacillus salivarius

Indigenous to the intestinal tract and other mucosal surfaces. Secretes several anti-microbial agents. Reduces proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Attenuates inflammatory responses to Salmonella typhimurium. Stimulates interleukin-10 secretion, a cytokine inhibiting the inflammatory response to bacterial DNA. Enhances intestinal calcium uptake. Significantly supports intestinal barrier function.

Lactobacillus plantarum

A highly beneficial transient bacteria generally lacking in people consuming a standard Western diet while universally present in people consuming traditional plant-based diets. Exceedingly resistant to gastric acid and bile salts. Facilitates induction of the central regulatory cytokine, interleukin-12. Decreases production of inflammatory mediators. Supports intestinal barrier function. Reduces translocation of gut bacteria. Antagonizes C. difficile. Supports normal microflora in people with irritable bowel syndrome.

Lactobacillus paracasei
Excellent acid-tolerance. Highly resistant to pancreatin. Ferments inulin and phleins and produces high levels of lactic acid. Antagonizes C. difficile and Staphylococcus aureus as well as other pathogens. Contributes to a healthy vaginal microflora. Has supportive benefit in conditions ranging from allergic rhinitis to nonrotavirus diarrhea in children.

Lactobacillus brevis

A colonizing species producing lactate, carbon dioxide, ethanol, and acetate. Resistant to gastric acid, bile acids, and digestive enzymes. Excellent adherent properties. Increases production of interferon. Metabolically unique in the production of arginine deaminase to break down arginine and reduce polyamine production, compounds associated with vaginal dysbiosis and intestinal carcinogenesis.

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Present in large numbers in a healthy colon. Populations are reduced in allergic infants and decline significantly with age. Suppresses total and antigen-specific IgE production. Enhances IgM and IgG responses to select antigens. Activates B cell IgA secretion. Enhances IgA response to C. difficile toxin A. Along with L. acidophilus, supports gut microflora during antibiotic therapy and reduces positive testing for C. difficile toxins.

Bifidobacterium infantis

Frequently found in infants’ intestinal tracts, but rarely in older adults. Strong suppressive effect on Bacteroides vulgatus, a commensal bacteria thought to have a role in inflammatory bowel disease. Reduces proinflammatory cytokine production. Supports normal microflora and inflammatory cytokine ratios in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Together with L. acidophilus, supports the gut microflora in very low birth weight infants decreasing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and promotes normal microflora in children with diarrhea.

Bifidobacterium longum

Often the dominant Bifidobacterium species in humans. Ferments a broad spectrum of oligosaccharides. Resistant to high bile salt concentrations. Inhibits human neutrophil elastase which may be important to innate immunity and attenuate harmful intestinal inflammation. Inhibits enterotoxigenic E. coli receptor binding and translocation. Augments intestinal IgA secretory response to dietary proteins. Favorably modulates inflammatory cytokine response to respiratory antigens. Improves inflammation in ulcerative colitis.

Bifidobacterium breve

Secretes compounds, such as lactosidase, that favorably modify intestinal microflora by reducing Bacteroides and Clostridium concentrations and degrading mucin. Stimulates Peyer’s patch B cell proliferation and antibody production. Eliminates stool Campylobacter jejuni in campylobacter enteritis restoring normal intestinal microflora. Antagonizes rotavirus and decreases rotavirus shedding in infants with rotavirus diarrhea.

Streptococcus thermophilus

A transient species with a long history of use as a starter culture for yogurt and cheese. Highly adapted to lactose metabolism. Many fermentation end-products including formate, acetoin, acetylaldehyde, diacetyl, and acetate that inhibit pathogenic bacterial proliferation. Reduces DNA damage and premalignant lesion formation by protecting against carcinogens. Along with other probiotics supports normal microflora and gastrointestinal function in conditions ranging from rotavirus diarrhea in infants to remission in ulcerative colitis.

Lactobacillus bulgaricus

A highly adapted, transient species closely related to L. acidophilus. Along with S. thermophilus, it has long been used in the production of yogurt and cheese. Supports normal cholesterol levels and reduces low density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation. Suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production.

Lactobacillus gasseri
Native to the human gut and vaginal tracts of healthy women and normally present in human breast milk. Produces hydrogen peroxide and bateriocins inhibitory to Clostridium, Listeria, and Enterococcus. Protects against intestinal mitogens and carcinogens.

Bifidobacterium lactis
Produces large amounts of anti-microbial formate. Enhances leukocyte tumor cell-killing properties and phagocytic activities. Increases numbers of total, helper, and activated T cells. B. lactis significantly increases serum and mucosal IgA responses to cholera toxin and tetanus toxoid.

Saccharomyces boulardii

Hardy, nonpathogenic yeast. Broad antimicrobial activities against C. dificile, toxigenic E. coli, Candida, and other gastrointestinal pathogens. Augments colon bifidobacteria populations and increases butyrate concentrations. Enhances brush border enzyme activities and improves gut barrier function.


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